What is manufacturing PCBs?

What is manufacturing PCBs?
5 min read
25 December 2022

Electronic circuit boards are assembled as part of the PCB manufacturing process. Lamination, layer stackup, and optical inspection are all included in this process. These procedures have an impact on the board's signal/power integrity as well as its reliability.


PCB manufacture employs a process called lamination. When the inner layers are heated, the process takes place. The circuit board is made by stacking these layers together.

Lamination comes in two primary varieties. Foil lamination and cap lamination are the two types. Both require careful material selection.

The procedure of foil lamination is substantially easier. The board is comprised of multiple layers of copper foil rather than a single sheet of prepreg. For the production of high radio frequency circuit boards, it is a fantastic option.

What is manufacturing PCBs?

The cap lamination technique is more difficult. The board is pressed first. Typically, a press with particular design is used for this. The material is progressively chilled after pressing. A photosensitive dry resist is then used in this technique to bond the substance.

This is accomplished by a procedure called successive lamination. It is not a novel approach. It has created best practises, nevertheless. Reducing the number of layers and picking materials with a high glass transition temperature are two examples of these techniques.

Visual examination of the layers

Defects in printed circuit boards are found via a procedure called automated optical inspection, or AOI (PCBs). It's an automated method that minimises errors.

PCB inspections are carried out by AOI using a computer to get high-quality results. Both before and after the PCB has been put together, this kind of inspection can be used.

AOI has the ability to check for inappropriate component mounting in addition to minor problems. It can also find short circuits on PCB manufacturing boards.

Additionally, optical inspection can be utilised to check for any defects in a multi-layer PCB's inner layers. Before a PCB is pressed, this kind of inspection is usually conducted.

A more recent inspection technique that can be used to inspect PCBs is X-ray examination. It is helpful for inspecting solder connections and joints and for spotting bubbles in solder joints. X-rays are costly and less effective for tiny boards, though.

Different inspection techniques are used by manufacturers to guarantee that PCBs are made correctly. These techniques include automated x-ray examination, automatic optical inspection, and manual inspection.

The dependability and signal/power integrity of the board are determined by layer stackup.

Your circuit's quality and dependability can be increased by using the appropriate PCB layer stackup. A PCB must be properly designed in order to function as intended. The materials employed, the method, and the necessary testing are only a few of the variables to take into account.

You can create a build-up with the help of Sierra Circuits' Stackup Designer. The capabilities provided by this software include an impedance calculator that keeps track of the impedance of particular signal nets.

Although impedance is the primary factor, the optimum design also considers the mechanical characteristics of the materials. The total effectiveness of your PCB will be impacted by thickness and other material loss considerations, depending on the application.

Copper is one of the most significant materials. Noise in your circuit will be reduced by a solid PCB stackup. The conductive surface of copper aids in the conductivity of electricity, and it has the highest thermal resistance of all the materials.

What is manufacturing PCBs?

board assembly

The process of attaching electronic parts to a printed circuit board is known as PCB assembly. It is essential to a product's success. There are both human and automatic processes in the process.

The board must first be covered in solder paste. At 250 degrees Celsius, this thin sheet of stainless steel melts. To guarantee that the paste only touches the necessary areas of the board, a stencil is applied over it.

Next, copper traces on the PCB are connected to component leads by soldering them to the holes in the board. The components are held in place by the solder paste's strain.

The PCB is heated to a temperature of 250 degrees Celsius when this phase is finished. At this phase, a layer of copper foil has been placed over the PCB's functional side.

Most PCB assembly uses SMT technology. Although this technique makes extensive use of automation, it is not the best option for manufacturing. Assemblers must employ the best pick-and-place equipment to achieve accuracy.


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NextPCB is one of the most experienced PCB manufacturers in Global, has specialized in the PCB and assembly industry for over 15 years. Not only could NextPCB p...
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