Secret Teach you how to distinguish the drill.

14 min read
15 January 2023

Originally published as Secrets..? Teach you how to distinguish the drill. Name of drilling rig and trolley? In the following, the professional terms that are easy to be confused in the rock drilling machinery commonly used in several mainstream mechanical drilling methods are sorted out, the terms such as top hammer impact drilling, down-the-hole drill, power head, trolley and drill carriage are explained and explained, and the names of commonly used drilling equipment are standardized and sorted out, which is conducive to the exchange of business and technology in the industry. 01. Necessity of product name identification In the industry of earthwork engineering, tunnel engineering and mining machinery, the names of "drill rig", "drill carriage" and "trolley" often appear. For down-the-hole equipment, most people call it "drill rig", and some people call it "drill carriage"; Top hammer type rock drilling equipment, which is called "rock drilling jumbo", "drilling rig" and "drilling rig" by some people, has no uniform and standardized name. The confusion in the use of product names is not conducive to the statistical management of social commodities, to the exchange of technology and business, and to the search of search engine nouns. Confucius said, "If the name is not correct, the words will not be correct, and if the words are not correct, the work will not be done." "Name rectification" is the need of social communication and the inevitable trend of social development. In this paper, the meaning and use scope of "drilling rig", "drilling rig" and "trolley" are discussed for the reference of producers, sellers, users and industry managers. Readers are welcome to discuss and correct the inappropriate points, so as to gradually standardize the names of products, so that each type of drilling machinery products has only one formal written name. Expand the full text 02. Drilling principle 2.1 Percussive drilling principle The percussive principle is applicable to the drilling of medium-hard and above rocks. The equipment for drilling by percussive method includes pneumatic rock drill, hydraulic rock drill, down-the-hole drill, steel cable percussive drill,dhd drill bit, etc. Percussion drilling can be divided into two types: down-the-hole drilling and top-hammer drilling. 2.1.1 Principle of down-the-hole drilling The principle of down-the-hole impact drilling is shown in Figure 1. The down-the-hole drilling is to install the impactor with impact effect at the bottom of the drill pipe and directly impact the drill bit to drill the hole. 2.1.2 Principle of top-hammer percussion drilling The principle of top hammer impact drilling is shown in Figure 2. Top hammer drilling is a way of drilling by installing the rock drill with impact effect on the top of the drill rod, directly impacting the drill rod, and transmitting the impact energy to the drill bit through the drill rod. 2.2 Cutting drilling principle The cutting drilling principle is shown in Figure 3. The cutting principle is applicable to drilling in soil or soft rock. The equipment for drilling by cutting method includes cutting drilling rig, rotary drilling rig, coal power station, coal mine roof bolter, etc. Because the cutting action is produced primarily by rotational torque, it is also referred to as rotary cut drilling. 2.3 Principle of rolling and drilling The rolling principle is applicable to the drilling of rocks below medium hardness. The roller drill applies the rolling principle to the drilling. The drilling process of the roller bit is shown in Figure 4. The drill is connected to the roller cone bit through the drill rod, and the drill rod is used to pressurize the bit into contact with the rock. At the same time, under the rotating action of the drill pipe, the cone with column teeth on the drill bit rolls, and through the column teeth in contact with the rock,DHD Drill bit, the vibration impact and press-in force are transmitted to break the rock. This kind of drilling method is a combination of vibration impact crushing action and shear crushing action, so it is called rolling drilling, because the cone rolls on the rock, it can also be called rolling drilling. Coal mine roadheaders and tunnel boring machines all use the principle of rolling and crushing rocks. 2.4 Vibrating drilling principle The principle of vibration drilling is shown in Figure 5. Vibration drilling is applicable to drilling in soil or soft rock. The equipment for vibration drilling includes sonic drill, ultrasonic rock drill, etc. 2.5 Combined action of multiple principles Percussive, cutting, rolling, and vibrating methods are the four basic ways to drill holes in rock or soil. Actual drilling equipment is generally a combination of several principles. For example, hydraulic rock drill drilling is mainly based on impact action, supplemented by cutting action. Sonic drilling is based on the principle of vibration and the combined action of vibration, rotary cutting and rolling. 03. Difference between drilling, perforation and rock drilling 3.1 Drilling Whether it is earthwork, tunnel engineering or mine excavation engineering; whether it is impact, cutting or vibration, as long as it is a drilling operation, it can be called drilling. 3.2 Perforation In rock excavation operations in open pit and underground mines, boreholes may also be referred to as perforations. 3.3 Rock drilling Percussion drilling and percussion-based drilling operations can be called rock drilling. Equipment using other drilling principles, such as cutting and vibrating drilling operations, cannot be called rock drilling. 04. Definition of down-the-hole hammer, rock drill and power head 4.1 Definition of down-the-hole impactor As the name implies, mining dth bit ,rock drilling tools, the down-the-hole impactor is a tool that uses the principle of down-the-hole impaction to drill holes. Down-the-hole impactor is called impactor, English "Down The Hole Hammer" ", so it is also called down-the-hole hammer. GB/T 6247 defines the down-the-hole impactor as "a tool installed at the front end of the drill rod and diving into the bottom of the hole for rock drilling", which is completely accurate. 4.2 Definition of rock drill A drill that uses the principle of top hammer impact to drill holes is called a rock drill. Rock drill is divided into pneumatic rock drill and hydraulic rock drill; it can also be divided into hand-held rock drill, outrigger rock drill, guide rail rock drill and so on. GB/T6247 defines the rock drill as "a machine with percussive and slewing mechanism for drilling and drilling", which is generally correct, but the following three points are questionable: (1) It should not be called a machine, but an appliance or a tool, because the structure of the rock drill is relatively simple, there is no power part, and it needs to input hydraulic power or pneumatic power from the outside. (2) Emphasis should be placed on the impact action as the main and the rotary cutting action as the supplement. Machines and tools with rotary cutting as the main part and impact as the auxiliary part are generally called power heads, not rock drills. (3) It is not pointed out that the rock drill can only be used for top-hammer drilling. Although the down-the-hole impactor is a percussive drill, it cannot be called a rock drill. 4.3 Definition of power head The machine with output torque and rotating speed is called power head. The volume, weight, output torque and power of the power head are far greater than those of the rock drill. The power head is generally used for the drilling operation of rotary drilling rig, pipe shed drilling rig and anchor drilling rig. 05. Definition of drilling rig, drill rig and jumbo 5.1 Definition of drilling rig The connotation of drilling rig is the most extensive, which generally refers to all drilling equipment. Any equipment that can drill a hole in soil or rock can be called a drilling rig, whether it is percussive, cutting, rolling, vibrating or combined drilling, or mobile drilling equipment and fixed drilling equipment, such as oil drilling rigs, geological coring rigs, etc. GB/T6247 defines the drilling rig as "a machine that mainly relies on the slewing mechanism to drill rock holes", which greatly narrows the connotation of the drilling rig, thus excluding the down-the-hole percussive and top-hammer percussive drilling equipment from the drilling rig. This is inconsistent with the actual situation in our country. Most manufacturers and users in our country call the down-the-hole percussive drilling equipment as down-the-hole drill. Zhangjiakou Xuanhua, the famous "hometown of drilling rigs" in China, mainly produces down-the-hole percussion drilling rigs. It is suggested to be revised when GB/T6247 is revised. 5.2 Definition of drill jumbo Drill carriage is defined in GB/T6247 as "a carriage for rock drills to drill rock holes". According to this definition, only the rock drilling vehicle using top hammer percussive drilling can be called a drilling vehicle, and the down-the-hole drilling equipment can not be called a down-the-hole drilling vehicle. There is a contradiction between this and GB/T1590. In the category of drilling rig, GB/T1590 includes many product names, such as open-air down-the-hole drilling rig, open-air medium-pressure down-the-hole drilling rig, open-air high-pressure down-the-hole drill rig and open-air hydraulic down-the-hole drill rig. In English, words such as "drill rig" "and" drill Jumbo "" indicate drilling equipment without the meaning of "vehicle", while words such as "vehicle", "car" and "truck" indicate vehicles. In the world, there are few reports about using "vehicle" to describe self-propelled drilling equipment. "Rig" has the meaning of "drilling rig, drilling frame, drilling tower, platform", and generally refers to all drilling rigs in English. "Jumbo" has the meaning of "giant". Compared with hand-held rock drills and outrigger rock drills, single-arm, double-arm and three-arm rock drilling jumbos are of course giant, so "Jumbo" can be translated as rock drilling jumbo. The original meaning of "wagon" is "four-wheeled carriage", which also refers to a train or a carriage of a train. Later, wagon evolved into a substitute name for a car model. In the current English materials of foreign drilling rig companies, it is almost impossible to use "wagon" to refer to a drilling rig. It is suggested that the self-propelled drilling equipment with faster running speed should be called drilling rig, for example, the drilling rig that is converted from a car can be called drilling rig. 5.3 Definition of rock drilling jumbo Underground top hammer impact rock drilling equipment is called rock drilling jumbo. Underground construction equipment also includes anchor bolt jumbo, concrete spraying jumbo and prying jumbo, etc., which are called jumbos for short. The drilling jumbo has the narrowest connotation, only the underground top hammer impact drilling equipment. Underground top hammer impact rock drilling equipment can be subdivided into tunnel driving jumbo, roadway driving jumbo, mining jumbo and so on. Although "jumbo" also contains the word "car", it emphasizes the word "platform". On this platform, one or two or three or more drilling booms can be installed for drilling operation. The content of GB/T6247 does not include "rock drilling jumbo". In fact, the term "rock drilling jumbo" is widely used. It is particularly common in railway tunnel excavation and underground mining engineering, and has been established by usage. It is suggested that the drilling jumbo should be defined when the standard is revised in the future. Open-air top hammer impact drilling equipment is generally called drilling rig, not rock drilling jumbo, which is also established by usage. 06. Sum up The names of commonly used drilling equipment are arranged as follows: (1) Fixed drilling equipment can only be called drilling rig; (2) The drilling equipment using the roller bit can only be called a roller drill; (3) Rotary cutting drilling equipment shall be called drilling rig, such as cutting drilling rig and rotary drilling rig; (4) Equipment using power head for drilling shall be called drilling rig, such as pipe shed drilling rig and top drive drilling rig; (5) Down-the-hole percussive drilling equipment should be called down-the-hole drill; (6) Open-air top hammer percussive drilling equipment should be called open-air top hammer drilling rig; (7) Tunnel and underground top hammer percussive drilling equipment should be called rock drilling jumbo; (8) Drilling equipment modified from automobiles should be called drilling rig; (9) If the traveling speed is very slow, such as less than 10KM/H,down the hole bit, it should be called a drilling rig. 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